environmental issues associated with iron ore

  • Technical Resource Document: Extraction and Beneficiation of

    Iron deposits related to igneous activity, surface and nearsurface enrichment, and ironrich placer deposits may contain trace quantities of materials such as aluminum, antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, nickel, selenium, silver, sulfur, titanium, and zinc.

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  • What Environmental Problems Are Caused By Mining Haematite

    Iron Ore Mining Centre for Environmental Studies. Orissa's iron ore occurs mainly in high grade deposits (haematite). relief &rehabilitation issues, Biodiversity, air &noise pollution are causes of concern in the. Read more

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  • Environmental Science Mining and Minerals Quizlet

    Used for copper, iron, gold, diamonds and coal Solution mining Rather than removing the ore form the ground, miners pump a chemical solution into the mine to leach desired resource of ore.

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  • How can metal mining impact the environment? American

    Material adapted from: Hudson, T.L, Fox, F.D., and Plumlee, G.S. 1999. Metal Mining and the Environment, p. 7,2027,3135,3839. Published by the American Geosciences Institute Environmental Awareness Series.

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    Modern mining operations actively strive to mitigate potential environmental consequences of extracting metals, and such operations are strictly regulated in the United States. The key to effective mitigation lies in implementing scientific and technological advances that prevent or control undesired environmental impacts. Seepage from tailings can be prevented or minimized by placing an impermeable barrier, such as clay, at the bottom of the impoundment before tailings disposal. Many pre1970s tailings impoundments did not have such barriers. The infiltration of surface water into tailings can be prevented by using reclamation methods that facilitate runoff rather than ponding of surface waters. If not prevented or controlled, the acidic and metalbearing waters from tailings can impact stream habitats and groundwater.

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    Operations and waste products associated with metal extraction and processing are the principal causes of environmental concerns about metal mining. Concerns include: Waste rock disposal areas are usually located as close to the mine as possible to minimize haulage costs. If not properly managed, erosion of mineralized waste rock into surface drainages may lead to concentrations of metals in stream sediments. This situation can be potentially harmful, particularly if the metals are in a chemical form that allows them to be easily released from the sediments into stream waters. When this occurs, the metals are considered to be mobilized and bioavailable in the environment. In some cases, bioavailable metals are absorbed by plants and animals, causing detrimental effects. Although current U.S. mining and reclamation practices guided by environmental regulations minimize or prevent waste rock erosion into streams, disposal of waste rock in places where it could erode into surface drainages has occurred historically. These conditions still exist at some old or abandoned mines. Slag is a byproduct of the smelting process. Most slags, because they are composed primarily of oxidized, glassy material, are not as significant a potential source of metals released into the environment as mine wastes and mill tailings. However, some slags may contain remnant minerals that can be a potential source of metal release to the environment. Where acid rock drainage occurs, the dissolution and subsequent mobilization of metals into surface and groundwater is probably the most significant environmental impact associated with metallic sulfide mineral mining. Acidic and metalbearing groundwater occurs in abandoned underground mine workings and deeper surface excavations that encounter the groundwater of a mineralized area. Because they are usually located at or below the water table, underground mines act as a type of well which keeps filling with water. Because these waters migrate through underground mine workings before discharging, they interact with the minerals and rocks exposed in the mine. If sulfide minerals are present in these rocks, especially pyrite, the sulfides can oxidize and cause acid rock drainage. In the past, sulfur dioxide has been the most common emission of concern, because it reacts with atmospheric water vapor to form sulfuric acid or acid rain. The acidic conditions that develop in the soils where these emissions precipitate can harm existing vegetation and prevent new vegetation from growing. Barren areas near smelting operations have been an enduring environmental impact of historical smelting. Some impacted areas that have existed for decades are now beginning to recover.

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    The largest physical disturbances at a mine site are the actual mine workings, such as open pits and the associated waste rock disposal areas. Mining facilities such as offices, shops, and mills, which occupy a small part of the disturbed area, are usually salvaged or demolished when the mine is closed. The open pits and waste rock disposal areas are the principal visual and aesthetic impacts of mining. Underground mining generally results in relatively small waste rock disposal areas ranging from a few acres in size to tens of acres (0.1 km2). These areas are typically located near the openings of the underground workings. Open pit mining disturbs larger areas than underground mining, and thus has larger visual and physical impacts. As the amount of waste rock in open pit mines is commonly two to three times the amount of ore produced, tremendous volumes of waste rock are removed from the pits and deposited in areas nearby. If water infiltrates into pyriteladen waste rock, the resulting oxidation can acidify the water, enabling it to dissolve metals such as copper, zinc, and silver. This production of acidic water, is commonly referred to as acid rock drainage. If acid rock drainage is not prevented from occurring, and if it is left uncontrolled, the resulting acidic and metalbearing water may drain into and contaminate streams or migrate into the local groundwater. The acidity of contaminated groundwater may become neutralized as it moves through soils and rocks. However, significant levels of dissolved constituents can remain, inhibiting its use for drinking water or irrigation.

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    Waste piles from processing, such as tailings impoundments, leach piles, and slag piles vary in size, but can be very large. The impoundments associated with some of the largest mills, such as at open pit copper mines, can cover thousands of acres (tens of km2) and be several hundred feet (about 100 m) thick. Heap leach piles can cover tens to hundreds of acres (0.1 to 1 km2) and be a few hundred feet (about 100 m) high. They resemble waste rock piles in location and size, but are more precisely engineered. Slag is a glassy byproduct of smeltingslag piles can cover tens to hundreds of acres (0.1 to 1 km2) and be over 100 hundred feet (30 m) high.

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    These impacts remain on the landscape until the disturbed areas are stabilized and reclaimed for other uses, such as wildlife habitat or recreation areas, after mining has ceased.

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    Although the character of waste rock varies with the type of ore, many waste rocks contain sulfide minerals associated with metals, such as lead, zinc, copper, silver, or cadmium. An important sulfide mineral common in waste rock is pyrite, iron sulfide. When pyrite is exposed to air and water, it undergoes a chemical reaction called oxidation. The oxidation process produces acidic conditions that can inhibit plant growth at the surface of a waste pile. Bare, nonvegetated, orangecolored surface materials make some waste rock areas highly visible, and they are the most obvious result of these acidic conditions.

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    Tailings produced from the milling of sulfide ores primarily copper, lead, and zinc ores may have concentrations of pyrite that are greater than those common in waste rock. Also, because tailings are composed of small mineral particles the size of fine sand and smaller, they can react with air and water more readily than waste rocks. Therefore, the potential to develop acidic conditions in pyriterich tailings is very high.

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    In some cases, the emissions from older metal smelters may have affected human health. For example, elevated levels of lead in blood have been measured in residents of some communities located near leadzinc smelters during their operation. Today, smelting operations, combined with environmental controls, are implemented to prevent potential environmental and health issues related to emissions.

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    Public Safety Old mining sites are inherently interesting to people, but potentially dangerous as well. They may have surface pits, exposed or hidden entrances to underground workings, or old intriguing buildings. Another safety consideration at some mine sites is ground sinking or subsidence. The ground may sink gradually where underground workings have come close to the surface. Because an unexpected collapse can occur without warning, such areas usually are identified and should be avoided. When modern mines are closed, mine owners mitigate such hazards by closing off mine workings, regrading and decreasing the steep slopes of surface excavations, and salvaging or demolishing buildings and facilities. In some states where old mining areas are common, such as Colorado and Nevada, current mine owners, government agencies, or other interested parties may undertake reclamation and safety mitigation projects that address hazards at these sites. At a minimum, these programs identify hazards, install warning and no trespass signs, and fence off dangerous areas. The closing of entrances to old underground workings may also be done as a part of these efforts. Some abandoned mine workings have become important habitats for bat colonies. Closure of mine openings can be designed to allow the bats continued access and protection. This practice is especially valuable for endangered bat species. Because many old mine sites may not be safe, the casual visitor to such sites is cautioned to exercise care and avoid entering them.

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  • (PDF) Environmental Impact Assessment for Iron Ore Mines An

    An attempt has been made to generalize the issues in effective Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) with a special attention to iron ore mines.

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  • MATERIAL ISSUES MANAGING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS Kumba Iron Ore

    Kumba Iron Ore Sustainability Report 2017 55 material issues MATERIAL ISSUES MANAGING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS MANAGING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS Our activities result in the disturbance of land, the consumption of resources such as water and energy, the generation of mineral residue, as well as dust emissions and water pollution.

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  • Iron ore and rare earth metals mining: an industry under

    24, 2014 · For iron ore, if carbon prices would rise to a level of $30 per tonne, iron ore costs would increase by 3.3% across the industry (pdf). An adequate incorporation of the water costs of iron ore

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  • Airway inflammation in iron ore miners exposed to dust and

    The aim of the present study was to investigate if underground miners exposed to dust and diesel exhaust in an iron ore mine would show signs of airway inflammation as reflected in induced sputum. In total, 22 miners were studied, once after a holiday of at least 2 weeks and the second time after 3 months of regular work.

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  • What Environmental Problems Are Caused By Mining Haematite

    Iron Ore Mining Centre for Environmental Studies. Orissa's iron ore occurs mainly in high grade deposits (haematite). relief &rehabilitation issues, Biodiversity, air &noise pollution are causes of concern in the. Read more

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  • The Enviromental impacts Of Mining Iron Ore by M C

    Uses of Iron Ore products We use iron to build bridges, buildings, cars, aircraft's, railroad, trains and home appliances like refrigerator, washing machines and utensils. Impacts on Land Landscape altered, land caves in, soil erosion Changes in land use pattern Land becomes

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  • How Does Mining Iron Ore Cause Environmental Problems

    Mines especially open cast iron ore mines, due to its own peculiarities can cause disturbance in ecology, resulting in various pollution problems.The environmental problems associated with the iron ore mining are diverse.

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  • environmental issues in mining iron ore wikipedia

    environmental issues in mining iron ore wikipedia. As a professional and experienced manufacturer of mobile crusher,jaw crusher, cone crusher,impact crusher,ball mill,super fine mill and vertical mill

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  • environmental impact of iron ore mineral

    environmental impact of iron ore mineral. Introduction iron ore iron ore is rock containing enough iron content, and in sufficient volume and accessibility to mining and transportation to be able to be economically mined iron in ore iron is most commonly found in the form of magnetite fe o , hematite fe o , goethite feooh, limonite feoohnh o or siderite feco Roughly of iron ore on the global

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  • Iron (Fe) Chemical properties, Health and Environmental effects

    Environmental effects of iron . Iron (III)Oarsenite, pentahydrate may be hazardous to the environmentspecial attention should be given to plants, air and water. It is strongly advised not to let the chemical enter into the environment because it persists in the environment. Read more on iron in water Back to the periodic table of elements.

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  • Environmental Risks of Mining

    Environmental issues with heap leaching are centered on the failure to keep process solutions within the heap leaching circuit. Release of toxic heap leaching fluids into the environment can affect the health of both the surrounding ecosystem and human population (Reichardt, 2008).

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  • Airway inflammation in iron ore miners exposed to dust and

    The aim of the present study was to investigate if underground miners exposed to dust and diesel exhaust in an iron ore mine would show signs of airway inflammation as reflected in induced sputum. In total, 22 miners were studied, once after a holiday of at least 2 weeks and the second time after 3 months of regular work. Control subjects were 21 whitecollar workers. All subjects

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  • Impacts of the global iron ore sector

    As the prime raw material for steel, iron ore is critical for all sectors of our economy and the characteristics of the global iron ore market influence the business strategies of companies that are active in this market. In turn, business strategies determine the social and environmental impacts of iron ore mines.

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  • environmental impact of iron ore mineral

    environmental impact of iron ore mineral. Introduction iron ore iron ore is rock containing enough iron content, and in sufficient volume and accessibility to mining and transportation to be able to be economically mined iron in ore iron is most commonly found in the form of magnetite fe o , hematite fe o , goethite feooh, limonite feoohnh o or siderite feco Roughly of iron ore on the global

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  • Impacts of Smelting Base Metal Smelting

    Smelting is known to be a major cause of pollution in the environment. When smelting occurs, along with the metal produced, a solid waste product, called stag, is also produced [1]. This slag is emitted into the air and can be a cause of the pollution although not a major one. The majority of the pollution is caused by air emissions [1].

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  • Does Mining Iron Ore Cause Environmental Problems

    environmental issues associated with iron ore. Issue by hazzerrr: What are the social &environmental problems linked with mining for iron ore? ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF IRON ORE MINING The Associated Why does mining iron ore cause environmental problems The Q&A wiki. Because To mine the iron you need a lot of land. 4,9/5Does Mining Iron Ore

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  • Impact Of Iron Ore Efficient On The Environment

    Assessment of Environmental Impact of Iron Ore Mining and. However, mining of iron ore has copious negative impacts on the environment As the mining method for Iron is usually open cast, it degrades natural landscapes, surface and ground water, flora and fauna, as well as the ambient air quality within the mining area and its environs.

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  • Does Mining Iron Ore Cause Environmental Problems

    environmental issues associated with iron ore. Issue by hazzerrr: What are the social &environmental problems linked with mining for iron ore? ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF IRON ORE MINING The Associated Why does mining iron ore cause environmental problems The Q&A wiki. Because To mine the iron you need a lot of land. 4,9/5Does Mining Iron Ore

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  • Does Mining Iron Ore Cause Environmental Problems Deforestation

    A whole range of environmental problems is associated with deforestation, among . The centres of mining and metal smelting became the most deforested areas of the The main reason why China did not circumnavigate Cape of Good Hope is England's forests could not supply enough charcoal for smelting the ore. Read more

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  • environmental issue associated with iron ore mining in singapore

    Environmental Risks From Mine Tailings Treehugger. Aug 10 2018 · Tailings are a type of rock waste from the mining industry When a mineral product is mined the valuable portion is usually embedded in a rock matrix called ore. More Details Environmental Issue Associated With Iron Ore Mining

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  • Environmental Issues Associated With Iron Ore

    Air Pollution Associated With Iron Mining. 2018726air pollution caused by iron ore miningir pollution associated with iron mining in india the steel making industry iron ore, coke, heated air and limestone or other fluxes are pollution associated with coke production is best reduced by ir pollution caused by opencast mining and its abatement measures environmental pollution in india.get price

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  • Dry processing of magnetic iron ores addressing cost and

    Kelsey, C G, Kelly, J R and Skinner, W, 2017. Dry processing of magnetic iron ores addressing cost and environmental issues, in Proceedings Iron Ore 2017, pp 215220 (The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy: Melbourne).

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  • MATERIAL ISSUES MANAGING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS Kumba Iron Ore

    Kumba Iron Ore Sustainability Report 2017 55 material issues MATERIAL ISSUES MANAGING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS MANAGING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS Our activities result in the disturbance of land, the consumption of resources such as water and energy, the generation of mineral residue, as well as dust emissions and water pollution.

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  • Dry processing of magnetic iron ores addressing cost and

    Kelsey, C G, Kelly, J R and Skinner, W, 2017. Dry processing of magnetic iron ores addressing cost and environmental issues, in Proceedings Iron Ore 2017, pp 215220 (The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy: Melbourne).

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  • environmental issue associated with iron ore mining in singapore

    Environmental Risks From Mine Tailings Treehugger. Aug 10 2018 · Tailings are a type of rock waste from the mining industry When a mineral product is mined the valuable portion is usually embedded in a rock matrix called ore. More Details Environmental Issue Associated With Iron Ore Mining

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  • Environmental Impact of Steel TheWorldCounts

    Environmental impact of steel production Mining of iron ore. The main ingredient in the production of steel is iron ore mined from Earth. Over 2,000 million tons of iron ore is mined mined a year about 95 percent is used by the steel industry.

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